Author Archives: Ronald L. Roper

Retrospective Introduction to the Foregoing Premial Atonement Bibliography

The foregoing “Bibliography of Most Significant Contributors to Recovering the New Testament Premial-Justice Doctrine of the Atonement, Its Exegetical Basis, Plus Doctrinal and Ethical Ramifications” is intended as an aid to researching key insights that have either become marginalized to a greater or lesser degree, or even virtually forgotten by the “mainstream.”  The dominant penal theory has increasingly hogged the stage and relativized other “aspects,” “themes,” “metaphors,” “theories,” “doctrines,” etc. of the Atonement…except itself, of course, for which it often claims an exceptional centrality, despite its stiff attempts at looking friendly.  This pivotal claim is quite spurious.  The presumption is easily exposed wherever the virtue of patient exegetical and historical research is at a premium.  And did I mention honesty?  By that I don’t mean mere loyalty to what one conscientiously holds to be true, but a rigorous attachment to the primal authority of the Biblical Scriptures and a profound respect for the way the Holy Spirit has chosen to use human words to elaborate concepts, be they in narrative, poetic, proverbial, visionary, parabolic, or didactic forms.  As I unfolded a bit at the outset of this blog site (see the “About” link at the very top), a concordant hermeneutic is the method of choice for the long haul; it steadily nudges the student toward healthy doubt and conscientious suspicion concerning the welter of human cultural traditions that have insinuated themselves into  historical attempts at doctrinal systematization.  Such alien assumptions have served to divide the unity of Christ’s body into factions, and thus weaken the impact of the unitary Truth once-for-all deposited with the saints in holy Scripture.

As I have stated and defended elsewhere, the domineering “penal substitution” conception of the Atonement is thoroughly incorrect at its very core.  Other prevalent schools of thought concerning the Atonement certainly have their weaknesses, but their heart is often in the right place.  But it is precisely the heart of penal theories (in their several varieties) of the Atonement that cannot be justified from Scripture.  If you have explored previous blogs, you know why it has become necessary for me to break from the pack on this key issue, and eschew all compromise.

This bibliography does hope to make a start at being comprehensive about collecting such works in English as contribute worthily to this end, including also untranslated works in other languages that are alleged, on good authority, to explore similar or compatible lines of thought.  For a few entries, I have added annotations.  This may eventually become desirable for others, as had indeed been my original intention.  But for starters, just getting down “on paper” (which now runs to 118 pages in hard copy) the works presently known to me, which tend in a premial direction, seems quite sufficient to get the ball rolling!  I hope you find this undertaking worth your efforts at using it productively.  I hope to be correcting, augmenting, deleting, and detailing it regularly from now on.  There’s nothing perfect under the sun, and this is a perfect example!

For further introductory information, please see the March 11th, 2019 post, “Celebrating the Seventh Anniversary of the Premial Atonement Blog!”


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Historical Theology, Church History, Biography / Encyclopedias, Dictionaries / Compilations / Surveys, Reviews, Critiques / Hymnology / Miscellaneous


ALLEN, A. V. G. (-)

__________.  Christian Institutions.

THE ANTE-NICENE FATHERS.  PDF Format, CD.  Amberson, PA: Scroll Publishing Co., n.d.

THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS.  Two volumes.  Translated from the Greek by Kirsopp Lake.  The Loeb Classical Library.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press / London: William Heinemann Ltd., MCMXLIX [1949].  {viii, 409p.; 396p.}

BARTELINK, G[erhardus]. J[ohannes]. M[arinus]. (1924-2012)

__________.  Lexicologisch-Semantische Studie over do Taal van de Apostolische Vaders.  Vijdrage tot de Studie van de Groeptaal der Griekse Christenen.  Utrecht: N.V.  J. Beyers, n.d. {xv, 170p.}

BAVINCK, Herman (1854-1921)

__________.  “Part III: The Work of Christ,” in Reformed Dogmatics: Volume 3: Sin and Salvation in Christ, pp. 323-482.  General Editor, John Bolt.  Translated by John Vriend.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2006.  {160p.}

BERCOT, David W. (1950-)

****__________, editor.  A Dictionary of Early Christian Beliefs: A Reference Guide to More Than 700 Topics Discussed by the Early Church Fathers.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 1998.  {xx, 704p.}

****BERKOWITZ, Luci (-) and Karl A. SQUITIER (-), with technical assistance from William A[llen]. JOHNSON (1956-).  Canon of Greek Authors and Works.  Third edition.  Thesaurus Linguae Graecae.  Oxford University Press, 1990 (1977, 1986).  {lx, 471p.}

BETHUNE-BAKER, J[ames]. F[ranklin]. (1861-1951)

**__________.  An Introduction to Early History of Christian Doctrine.  London: Methuen, 1903; repr. 1933.  {}  [Esp. p. 352; “The sufferings of Christ were not regarded as an exchange or substitution of penalty, or a punishment inflicted on him by the Father for our sins.”]

BICKNELL, E[dward]. J[ohn]. (-)

*__________.  A Theological Introduction to the Thirty-Nine Articles of the Church of England.  Revised edition.  Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2007.  {484p.}  (Second edition, London: 1925.)

BRINSMEAD, Robert D[aniel]. (1933-)

__________.  “How Melanchthon Helped Luther Discover the Gospel: A Book Review,” Verdict, vol. 3 no. 2 (May 1980): 4-9.  {6p.}

BROWN, David (1948-)

__________.  “Anselm on Atonement,” in The Cambridge Companion to Anselm, pp. 279-302.  Edited by Brian Davies and Brian Leftow.  Cambridge University Press, 2004.  {24p.}

BROWN, Robert McAfee (1920-2001)

__________.  P. T. Forsyth: Prophet for Today.  Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1952.  {191p.}

BUREN, Paul [Matthews] van (1924-98).  “The Obedience of Christ,” Chapter III; “Sustained Our Character,” Chapter IV; and “Sustained Our Punishment,” Chapter V in Christ in Our Place: The Substitutionary Character of Calvin’s Doctrine of Reconciliation, pp. 27-39; 40-50; 51-89.  [Introduction by Karl Barth (missing).]  A doctoral dissertation submitted to the Theological Faculty of the University of Basel, Switzerland.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1957.  {13, 11, 39p.}  (Genehmigt von der theologischen Fakultät auf Antrag der Herren Prof. Karl Barth, Referent, Prof. Hendrick van Oyen, Coreferent.  Basel, den 30. Jan., 1954.  Der Dekan Herr Prof. Oscar Cullmann.)  [One of the most “sustained,” if not remorseless, summaries and defenses of Calvin’s penal substitution to be found in English.  Handles Calvin’s soteriological development beyond Anselm, acc. G. H. Williams.  This is a classic articulation of one of the most pervasive and perilous errors in the history of Christian soteriology.  Every serious contender for a more Biblical understanding of the truth ought to engage in the valuable exercise of wrestling it down.]

BYNUM, Caroline Walker (1941-)

***__________.  “The Power in the Blood: Sacrifice, Satisfaction, and Substitution in Late Medieval Soteriology,” in The Redemption, pp. 177-204.  Edited by S. T. Davis, D. Kendall, and G. O’Collins.  Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004.  {28p.}

***__________.  Wonderful Blood: Theology and Practice in Late Medieval Northern Germany and Beyond.  Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.  {xix, 402p.}

CLARKE, Adam (1762-1832)

***__________.  The Holy Bible Containing the Old and New Testaments, the text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present authorized translation, including the marginal readings and parallel texts with a Commentary and Critical Notes designed as a help to a better understanding of the Sacred Writings.  Six volumes.  A new edition, with the author’s final corrections.  Nashville/New York:  Abingdon Press, n.d.

CLARK, Kenneth (1903-83)

__________.  Civilization: A Personal View, p. 29.  London: BBC and John Murray, 1969.  {1p.} [On the Cross in early Christian art.]

CLIFFORD, Alan C. (-)

__________.  Atonement and Justification: English Evangelical Theology 1640-1790, An Evaluation.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.  {xvi, 268p.}

COLWELL, John (-)

__________.  The Rhythm of Doctrine: A Liturgical Sketch of Christian Faith and Faithfulness.  Paternoster, 2007.  {135p.}  [<Pulliam]  (??)

****A CONCORDANCE OF ANTE-NICENE WRITINGS.  [Marc Carrier’s website.]

DALY, Robert J. (1933-)

**__________.  Christian Sacrifice: The Judaeo-Christian Background before Origen.  Studies in Christian Antiquity, no. 18.  Washington: Catholic University of America Press, 1978.  {587p.}  {} [He says blood is a symbol of life, acc. Tambasco.]

DANIELS, T. Scott (1966-) and Marty [Alan] MICHELSON (1971-)

__________.  “Passing the Peace: Worship that Shapes Non-Substitutionary Convictions” (paper presented at the annual meeting of the Wesleyan Theological Society, Seattle, WA, March 3-5, 2005).

DINSMORE, Charles Allen (1860-1941)

**__________.  Atonement in Literature and Life.  Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin and Co., 1906.  {xviii, 250p.}

EBERHART, Christian A.  See WILEY, Henrietta L.

EDERSHEIM, Alfred (1825-99)

**__________.  The Temple: Its Ministry and Services As They Were at the Time of Christ.  Grand Rapids, MI: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1951.  {414p.} [Especially on the scapegoat.]

ELDEBO, Runar (-)

***__________.  Review of David M. Gustafson, D. L. Moody and Swedes:  Shaping Evangelical Identity among Swedish Mission Friends 1867-1899.  Linköping, Sweden:   Linköping University Department of Culture and Communication, 2008. (accessed Jan. 26, 2010).

ERDMAN, David V. (1911-2011)

__________.  Blake, Prophet Against Empire: A Poet’s Interpretation of the History of His Own Times.  Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1969.  {xxii, 546p.}

FAIRBAIRN, A[ndrew]. M[artin]. (1838-1912)

__________.  The Philosophy of the Christian Religion.  [pp. 403-11, 418-33, 492-507.] (?)

__________.  The Place of Christ in Modern Theology.  1893.  [pp. 123ff., 100, 174ff., 310-20, 479-87.]

FINLAN, Stephen. (1951-)

__________.  The Background and Content of Paul’s Cultic Atonement Metaphors.  {}

__________.  Opinions on Atonement in Christian Thought.  Michael Glazier, 2007.  (?)

__________.  Problems with Atonement: The Origins of, and Controversy about, the Atonement Doctrine.  Michael Glazier, 2005.  (?)

FOSTER, Douglas A., Paul M. BLOWERS, Anthony L. DUNNAVANT, & D. Newell WILLIAMS, editors

***__________.  The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement:  Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ.  Grand Rapids, MI/Cambridge, UK: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2004.  {xl, 854p.}

FURUYA, Yasuo C[arl]. (1927?-2018)

**__________.  “Who Was Toyohiko Kagawa?”  The Inaugural Kagawa Lecture, Princeton Theological Seminary, November 12, 2001.  The Princeton Seminary Bulletin, 2002.  {12p.}  (online)

GARDINER, Gordon P. (-)

***__________.  Champion of the Kingdom: The Story of Philip Mauro.  Swengel, PA: Reiner Publications, 1961.  {[ix], 79p.}

GODET, Frédéric Louis (1812-1900)

__________, et al, editors.  The Atonement in Modern Religious Thought: A Theological Symposium.  Third Edition.  London: J. Clark, 1907.  {376p.}

GONZÁLEZ, Justo L. (1937-)

__________.  A History of Christian Thought.  Nashville:  Abingdon, 1987.

GRANT, F[rederick]. W[illiam]. (1834-1902)

__________.  Dr. Waldenström and Non-Vicarious Atonement.  Reprinted from “Help and Food.”  New York: Loizeaux Brothers, Bible Truth Depot, n.d.  {44p.}

GREEN, Lowell C. (1925-2014)

****__________.  The Erlangen School of Theology: Its History, Teaching, and Practice.  Fort Wayne, IN:  Lutheran Legacy, 2010.  {376p.}

***__________.  “Faith, Righteousness and Justification:  New Light on Their Development Under Luther and Melanchthon,” The Sixteenth Century Journal, vol. 4 no. 1 (April 1973).  Reprinted in Present Truth: A magazine dedicated to the restoration of New Testament Christianity in this generation, vol. 7 no. 1 (Feb. 1978): 20-30.  {11p.}

***__________.  How Melanchthon Helped Luther Discover the Gospel: The Doctrine of Justification in the Reformation.  Fallbrook, CA: Verdict Publications, 1980.  {274p.}

GRENSTED, L[aurence]. W[illiam]. (1884-1964)

**__________.  A Short History of the Doctrine of the Atonement.  The University of Manchester Theological Series, No. IV.  Manchester: The University Press; London, New York, Chicago, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras: Longmans, Green & Co., 1920.  {ix, 376p.}

GUSTAFSON, David M. (-)

***__________.  D. L. Moody and Swedes: Shaping Evangelical Identity among Swedish Mission Friends 1867-1899.  Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Department of Culture and Communication, 2008.  {[iv], 357p.}  Online: (accessed Jan. 26, 2010).

HAGENBACH, K[arl]. R[udolf]. (1801-74)

__________.  History of Doctrine.  Volume 1.  [Esp. pp. 195, 376-7.  Primitive church held vicarious suffering, not “vicarious satisfaction.”  Also claimed the idea of a “debt paid to God” gained ground increasingly after Athanasius, who became the first to propound it.]

HARDMAN, Keith J. (1931-)

__________.  Charles Grandison Finney, 1792-1875: Revivalist and Reformer.  Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987.  {xix, 521p.}  (Reprinted in paperback, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1990.)

HARNACK, Adolph von (1851-1930)

HELLSTEN, Roland K. (-)

__________.  “The Doctrine of the Atonement in Swedish Theology.”  Th.M. Thesis for Dallas Theological Seminary, May 1973.  {[iv], 96p.}

HUGHES, Thomas Hywel (1875-1945)

__________.  The Atonement:  Modern Theories of the Doctrine.  London:  Allen & Unwin, 1949.

JAEGER, Werner (1888-1961)

__________.  Early Christianity and Greek Paideia.  London/Oxford/New York: Oxford University Press, 1961.  {iv, 154p.}

JOSEPHUS, Flavius (37-c. 100)

KÄSEMANN, Ernst (1906-98)

*__________.  Commentary on Romans.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1980 [original German, 1973].  {}  [However, curiously demanded that all sacrificial language be abandoned!]

KELLY, J[ohn]. N[orman]. D[avidson]. (1909-97)

__________.  Early Christian Doctrines.  Second edition.  London:  Adam & Charles Black, 1960.

KINGSLEY, Charles (1819-75)

__________.  Charles Kingsley: His Letters and Memories of His Life.  Edited by his wife.  Two vols.  Thirteenth abridged edition.  With portraits and illustrations.  London: Kegan Paul, Trench, & Co., 1883.  {xi, 359p.; viii, 367p.}

KIRWAN, Michael (-)

__________.  Discovering Girard.  London: DLT, 2004.  {}  (?)

__________.  Girard and Theology.  London and New York: T. & T. Clark, 2009.  {vi, 165p.}  (?)

KURTZ, J[ohann]. H[einrich]. (1809-90)

**__________.  Offerings, Sacrifices and Worship in the Old Testament.  Translated by James Martin.  T and T Clark, 1863.  (Reprinted under the title, Sacrificial Worship of the Old Testament.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1980.  Newly reprinted as Offerings, Sacrifices and Worship in the Old Testament.  Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1998.  {456p.})  [Especially pp. 395-97, where he brilliantly reproduces the resurrectionary tendency of a host of the greatest evangelical German scholars of his day, yet only to reject it for vicarious penal theory!  Especially of value, he reproduces the opinions of J. C. K. von Hofmann.  Renders valuable insight into the Day of Atonement offering(s).]

LARDNER, Nathaniel (1684-1768)

***__________.  The Works of Nathaniel Lardner, D. D.  In Eleven Volumes.  Containing Credibility of the Gospel History; Jewish and Heathen Testimonies; History of Heretics; and His Sermons and Tracts; with General Chronological Tables, and Copious Indexes.  To the first volume is prefixed The Life of the Author, by Andrew Kippis.  London: Printed for J. Johnson, 1788.  {clxviii, 496p.; x, 549p.; iv, 554p.; iv, 515p.; vii, 419p.; vii, 672p.; iv, 465p.; iv, 479p.; xv, 518p.; xi, 645p.; vii, 556p.}

LONGENECKER, Bruce W. (1961-)

__________.  The Cross before Constantine: The Early Life of a Christian Symbol.  Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2015.  {xi, 232p.}  [Ironically, rather confirms the virtual absence of the cross as a meaningful religious or liturgical symbol in early Christianity, which instead was distinctly resurrection-driven.]

LOOFS, Friedrich (1858-1928)

MacKINTOSH, C[harles]. H[enry]. (1820-96)

MAURICE, Frederick (-)

***__________, editor.  The Life of Frederick Denison Maurice, Chiefly Told in His Own Letters.  Vol. II, pp. 21-23, 234-35, 262, 365-68.  London: Macmillan and Co., 1884.  {10p.}

McGRATH, Alister E[dgar]. (1953-).  Iustitia Dei: A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification.  Third edition.  Cambridge University Press, 2005 (1986, 1998).  {xiv, 448p.}

__________.  “Justice and Justification: Semantic and Juristic Aspects of the Christian Doctrine of Justification,” in Scottish Journal of Theology 35, no. 5 (1982): 404-5.  {2p.}

McLACHLAN, H. John (-)

**__________.  The Religious Opinions of Milton, Locke and Newton.  1941.  {}

**__________.  Socinianism in Seventeenth-Century England.  Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1951.  {vi, 358p.?}

MILTON, John (1608-74)

*__________.  Treatise on Christian Doctrine.  1650.  [An ‘antinomian’, i.e., an Arian, but not a Socinian.]  (?)

MORTIMER, Sarah (-)

**__________.  Reason and Religion in the English Revolution: The Challenge of Socinianism.  Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.  {vii, 264p.}

MOZLEY, J[ohn]. K[ennedy]. (1883-1946)

__________.  The Doctrine of the Atonement.  London: Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd., 1915.  {vii, 235p.}

MULLER, Richard A[lfred]. (1948-)

__________.  Post-Reformation Reformed Dogmatics: The Rise and Development of Reformed Orthodoxy, ca. 1520 to ca. 1725.  Volume One: Prolegomena to Theology.  Second edition.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2003 (1987).  {463p.}

__________.  Ibid.  Volume Two: Holy Scripture: The Cognitive Foundation of Theology.  Second edition.  2003 (1993).  {}

__________.  Ibid.  Volume Three: The Divine Essence and Attributes.  2003.  {}

__________.  Ibid.  Volume Four: The Triunity of God.  2003  {}

MULLINS, [Richard Wayne] “Rich” (1955-97)

**__________.  “Awesome God.”  BMG Songs, Inc. (ASCAP), 1988.  [“Judgment & wrath He poured out on Sodom; mercy & grace He gave us at the cross.”]

OBERMAN, Heiko A[ugustinus]. (1930-2001)

__________.  “‘Iustitia Christi’ and ‘Iustitia Dei’: Luther and the Scholastic Doctrines of Justification,” in The Dawn of the Reformation: Essays in Late Medieval and Early Reformation Thought, pp. 104-125.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.  {22p.}

OESTERLEY, W[illiam]. O[scar]. E[mil].  (1866-1950)

__________.  Sacrifices in Ancient Israel: Their Origin, Purposes and Development.  New York: Macmillan; London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1937.  [BLOOD as LIFE!]

OSTERWEIS, Rollin G. (1907-82)

**__________.  Romanticism and Nationalism in the Old South.  Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1949.  {x, 275p.}

OXENHAM, Henry Nutcombe (1829-88)

__________.  The Catholic Doctrine of the Atonement: An Historical Inquiry into Its Development in the Church; With an Introduction on the Principle of Theological Developments.  Second edition.  London: Wm. H. Allen, 1869 (1865).  [esp. p. 24]  (Reprinted, HardPress Publishing, 2012  {298p.}; Wentworth Press, 2016.  {284p.})  (?)

PELIKAN, Jaroslav [Jan] (1923-2006)

**__________.  The Christian Tradition.

**__________.  Historical Theology: Continuity and Change in Christian Doctrine.  Theological Resources Series.  London: Hutchinson & Co.; New York: Corpus, 1971.  {xxiii, 228p.}

PRIESTLY, Joseph (1733-1804)

__________.  “The History of Opinions Relating to the Doctrine of Atonement.”  Part II in A History of the Corruptions of Christianity, pp. 51-92.  Joseph Johnson, 1782.  {42p.}

PULLIAM, Ken (1960?-2010)

__________.  “The Absurdity of the Atonement.”  Chapter 7 in The End of Christianity, pp. 181-94.  Edited by John W. Loftus.  Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 2011.  {14p.}

RAMSEY, A[rthur]. M[ichael]. (1904-88)

__________.  An Era in Anglican Theology:  From Gore to Temple.  New York:  Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1960.  {}

***__________.  The Gospel and the Catholic Church.  London, 1936.  {}  [David Michael Stanley, p. 5, note 22: “Ramsey developed an ecclesiology in terms of dying and rising with Christ.”]

RASHDALL, Hastings (1858-1924)

__________.  The Idea of Atonement in Christian Theology.  Being the Bampton Lectures for 1915.  London: Macmillan and Co., 1919 [reprinted 1925].  {xix, 502p.}

RICHARDSON, Alan (1905-75)

__________.  Creeds in the Making.  Reprint.  Fortress, 1981 [1935].  [Esp. pp. 95-111.]

RIDDERBOS, Herman Nicolaas (1909-2007)

__________.  Zijn wij op de verkeerde weg?  Een bijbelse studie over de Verzoening [Are We on the Wrong Path?  A Biblical Study of Reconciliation].  Kampen: J. H. Kok, 1972.  {86p.}  [This was his published penal substitutionary critique of Herman Wiersinga’s controversial but very worthy dissertation, De verzoening in de theologische diskussie.  Kampen: J. H. Kok, 1971.]

RILEY, W[illiam]. B[ell]. (1861-1947)

__________.  KAGAWA, Is he an apostle of Christ or Antichrist?  Is self-sacrifice an atonement for false teaching?  N.p., n.d.  {22p.}

RITSCHL, Albrecht (1822-89)

__________.  A Critical History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification and Reconciliation.  Translated by John S. Black.  Edinburgh: Edmonston and Douglas, 1872.  {xvi, 605p.}

RIVIÉRE, Jean (1878-1946)

*__________.  The Doctrine of the Atonement: A Historical Essay, 2 vols, translated by Luigi Cappadelta.  London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co. / St. Louis: B. Herder, 1909.  [“…devoted his life to the question of the redemption.”  Championed vicarious satisfaction, but not “penal expiation.”]

ROWLAND, Christopher [Charles] (1947-)

__________.  Blake and the Bible.  New Haven, London:  Yale University Press, 2010.  {xx, 289p.}

RUTHVEN, Jon Mark (1942-)

__________.  What’s Wrong with Protestant Theology?  Tradition vs. Biblical Emphasis.  Tulsa, OK: Word & Spirit Press, 2013.  {314p.}

RYKEN, Phillip Graham (1966-)

__________.  “The Medieval Achievement: Anselm on the Atonement,” in Precious Blood: The Atoning Work of Christ, edited by Richard B. Phillips.  2007.  {}

SAARNIVAARA, Uuras (1908-98)

***__________.  Luther Discovers the Gospel: New Light upon Luther’s Way from Medieval Catholicism to Evangelical Faith.  St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1951.  {xv, 146p.}

SABATIER, Auguste (1839-1901)

***__________.  The Doctrine of the Atonement and Its Historical Evolution.  Translated by Victor Leulitte.  New York: Putnam, 1904.  {}

***__________.  St. Paul.  {}

SCHAFF, Philip (1819-93)

__________, ed.  The Creeds of Christendom: With a History and Critical Notes.  Revised by David S. Schaff.  Three volumes.  Sixth edition.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1983.  {xviii, 947p.; vii, 634p.; vii, 966p.}  Reprinted from the 1931 edition published by Harper and Row.

SEEBERG, Reinhold (1859-1935)

*__________.  Text-book of the History of Doctrines.  Translated by Charles E. Hay.  Two volumes.  Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1952.  {413p., 492p.}

SELIG, C. A. (-)

Vollständige Historie des Augsburger Confession, 3 vols.  Halle, 1730, 2.714-947.  [“Perhaps the best account of the views and influence of Stancari….” Acc. McGrath, p. 242, n. 109.]

SMEATON, George (1814-89)

This Scottish Presbyterian theologian also uses the term “premial” in his volumes on the Atonement, but designates thereby merely the reward that believers receive as a result of faith in Christ, not the reward that Christ received from God on the basis of divine justice (which, of course, flows further to all who trust him).

SMITH, W[illiam]. Robertson (1846-94)

__________.  The Religion of the Semites: The Fundamental Institution.  Third Edition. With Introduction and Notes by S. A. Cook.  London, 1927 [1889; 1907].  [Esp. pp. 338, 377.  Blood as life.]

TORREY, R[euben]. A[rcher]. (1856-1928)

__________.  Letter to Mr. A. Mellander, February 14, 1922, in reply to a letter of February 8, 1922.  Chicago: North Park University, Covenant Archives and Historical Library, 6/1/2/1/19 Box 1.  {2p.}  (Available from Billy Graham Center Archives, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL.  “A Feast of Fragments: The Papers of R. A. Torrey.”)

TULLOCH, John (1823-86)

__________.  Movements of Religious Thought in Britain During the Nineteenth Century.  Longmans, 1885.

TURNER, H[enry]. E[rnest]. W[illiam]. “Hugh” (1907-95)

__________.  The Patristic Doctrine of Redemption.  London: A. R. Mowbray & Co. Ltd.; New York: Morehouse-Gorham Co., 1952.  {123pp}  (?)

WILBUR, Earl Morse (1866-1956)

**__________.  A History of Unitarianism, Vol. I: Socinianism and its Antecedents.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1945.  {xiii, 617p.}

**__________.  A History of Unitarianism, Vol. II: In Transylvania, England, and America.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1952.  {x, 518p.}

WILEY, Henrietta L. (-) and Christian A. EBERHART (-)

**__________.  Sacrifice, Cult, and Atonement in Early Judaism and Christianity: Constituents and Critique.  Atlanta: SBL Press, 2017.  {xviii, 431p.}

WILLIAM, Garry J[ohn]. (-)

__________.  “Penal Substitutionary Atonement in the Church Fathers,” Evangelical Quarterly 83.3 (2011), 195-216.  {22p.}  [Critical response to Derek Flood, “Substitutionary Atonement and the Church Fathers” (q.v.), to which Flood provides an able rejoinder.]

WILLIAMS, George Huntston (1914-2000)

***__________.  The Polish Brethren: Documentation of the History and Thought of Unitarianism in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and in the Diaspora, 1601-1685.  Part I.  Edited, Translated, and Interpreted by George Huntston Williams.  Missoula, MT: Scholars Press, 1980.  {}

**__________.  The Radical Reformation.  Third edition, revised and expanded.  Volume XV, Sixteenth Century Essays & Studies.  Kirksville, MO: Truman State University Press, 2000.  {xlvi, 1513p.}  (First edition, Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962; Second edition, Mexico City: Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1983.)

****ZION’S HARP.  A Collection of Hymns and Songs for the Apostolic Christian Church of America.  Translated from the German. 1958.  {448p.}

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Immortality, Final Punishment, Annihilation, Hades, Gehenna, Lake of Fire, New Heavens and New Earth

ABBOTT, Lyman J. (1835-1922)

__________.  “There is Very Little in the New Testament to Warrant Belief in Endless Conscious Sin and Suffering; Much in it Showing that the End of Sin is Absolute Death.”  Chapter II in That Unknown Country, pp. 64-74.  By Edward White, et al.  Springfield, MA: The C. A. Nichols Co., Publishers, 1888.  {11p.}

BERCOT, David W. (1950-)

****__________.  What the Early Christians Believed about Christ’s Descent into Hades.  Ibid.  70 min. CD

****__________.  What the Early Christians Believed about Life after Death.  Ibid.  70 min. CD.

BRUCE, F[rederick]. F[yfie]. (1910-90)

**__________.  “Paul on Immortality,” Scottish Journal of Theology 24/4 (November 1971): 457-72.  {16p.}

COLLINS, David (-)

***__________.  “Hell and Tradition.”  ICS Academic Papers Series.  Toronto: Institute for Christian Studies, 1990.  {vi, 34p.}

CULLMANN, Oscar (1902-99)

***__________.  Immortality of the Soul or Resurrection of the Dead?  Macmillan, 1958.  {}

DALTON, William Joseph (-)

__________.  Christ’s Proclamation to the Spirits.  Analecta Biblica, 23.  Rome: Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1965.  {xxiv, 300p.}

FARRAR, Frederick W. (1831-1903)

__________.  “Present-Day Beliefs on Future Retribution.”  Chapter XIII in That Unknown Country, pp. 267-82.  By Edward White, et al.  Springfield, MA: The C. A. Nichols Co., Publishers, 1888.  {16p.}

FUDGE, Edward William (1944-2017)

***__________.  “The Final End of the Wicked,” Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society 27/3 (September 1984): 325-34.  {10p.}

***__________.  The Fire That Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of Final Punishment.  Fallbrook, CA: Verdict Publications, 1982.  {500p.}  (Reprinted, Houston, TX: Providential Press.)

***__________.  The Fire That Consumes: The Biblical Case for Conditional Immortality.  Revised Edition.  Revising Editor, Peter Cousins.  Foreword by John Wenham.  Carlisle, UK: The Paternoster Press, 1994.  {xiv, 226p.}

***__________.  The Fire Than Consumes: A Biblical and Historical Study of the Doctrine of Final Punishment.  Third Edition, Fully Updated, Revised, and Expanded.  Foreword by Richard Bauckham.  Eugene, OR: Cascade Books, An Imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2011.  {xxiv, 417p.}

***__________ and Robert A. Peterson.  Two Views of Hell: A Biblical & Theological Dialogue.  Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2000.  {228p.}  [By an illuminating irony, Fudge, the most learned modern defender of conditional immortality, nevertheless also defended penal substitution intact.  Consequently Peterson was able to inflict numerous needless wounds to Fudge’s inconsistent arguments in this connection.  There is an important lesson to be learned here about the mutual reinforcement of uncomfortable new truths that need one another in order to wage war successfully against the phalanx of domineering false traditions.]

***__________.  “Hell and Mr. Fudge: One man’s journey to discover what the Bible says (and doesn’t say) about hell.”  Feature movie.  Rock Rapids, IA: Bridgestone Multimedia Group / Flame Out Productions, a division of LLT Productions, 2012.  (95 minutes)

HARRIS, Murray J. (1939-)

***__________.  From Grave to Glory.  Grand Rapids:  Zondervan, 1990.  {}

***__________.  Raised Immortal: Resurrection and Immortality in the New Testament.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1983.  {}

KELLER, Paul (-)

***__________.  “To everything there is a season: For the bereaved Christian.”  Minneapolis, MN: Kairos, 1973.  {23p.}

NAGASAWA, Mako A. (1972-)

**__________.  “What about Hell?”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted


***__________.  The Future Great Planet Earth: Good News about the Future of This Earth According to the Bible.  Mussoorie, India: Nivedit Good Books Distributors Pvt. Ltd., 1989.  {vi, 69p.}

SUMMERBELL, N[icholas]. (1816-89)

***__________.  “The Wicked, After Judgment, May Utterly Perish, and Sin be Thus Brought to an End.  Chapter XLV in That Unknown Country, pp. 832-46.  By Edward White, et al.  Springfield, MA: The C. A. Nichols Co., Publishers, 1888.  {15p.}

WATTS, Isaac (1674-1748)

***__________.  The Ruin and Recovery of Mankind.  London, 1740.  {}  [On the final estate, but atonement?]

WHITE, Edward (1819-98)

***__________.  “The Doctrine of a Conditional Immortality and of the Eternal Destruction of the Wicked.  Chapter LI in That Unknown Country, pp. 928-44.  By Edward White, et al.  Springfield, MA: The C. A. Nichols Co., Publishers, 1888.  {17p.}

***__________.  Life in Christ: A Study of the Scripture Doctrine on the Nature of Man, the Object of the Divine Incarnation, and the Conditions of Human Immortality.  Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged.  London: Elliot Stock, 1878.  {xvi, 543p.}

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Law, Criminal Justice, Restorative Justice, Retribution, Restitution, Reconciliation

ALLARD, Pierre (-)

***__________.  “Christianity:  The Rediscovery of Restorative Justice,” in The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice, pp. 119-41.  Edited by Michael L. Hadley.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001.  {23p.}

BELL, Jr., Daniel M. (1966-)

**__________.  “Justice and Liberation,” in The Blackwell Companion to Christian Ethics, pp. 182-95.  Edited by Stanley Hauerwas and Sam Wells.  Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2003.  {14p.}

BERMAN, Harold J[oseph]. (1918-2007)

***__________.  “Religious Foundations of Law in the West: An Historical Perspective,” Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. 1, No. 2 (Summer 1983): 3-43.  {41p.}

***__________.  “Theological Sources of the Western Legal Tradition,” in Law and Revolution: The Formation of the Western Legal Tradition, pp. 165-198; notes, pp. 591-599.  Cambridge, MA / London, UK: Harvard University Press, 1983.  {34p.; 9p.}

BONTRAGER, William D. “Bill” (-)

**__________.  “A Theory on the Implications of the Atonement of St. Anselm.”  Shepherds for Peace.  {3p.}  Online: (accessed 10/20/2009).

__________.  “Comparing Governance/Law of State and Church.”  Shepherds for Peace.  {5p.}  Online: (accessed 10/20/2009).

**__________.  In Search of Justice.  {124p.}

**__________.  Restorative Justice: A Primer.  {120p.}

BRUNK, Conrad G[rebel]. (1945-)

__________.  “Restorative Justice and the Philosophical Theories of Criminal Punishment.”  In The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice, pp. 31-56.  Edited by Michael L. Hadley.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001.  {26p.}

CARLSON, David R. (-)

**__________, editor.  Contributing editors, Daniel W. Van Ness and Evelyn Bence.  Beyond Crime and Punishment: Restorative Justice.  Washington, DC: Prison Fellowship, 1991.  {30p.}

COREY, Benjamin L. (1976-)

***__________.  “Justice Broken: How a Poor Theology of the Cross Created America’s Broken Justice System.”  Formerly Fundie: The Official Blog Post of Benjamin L. Corey, January 27, 2014; last accessed April 21, 2014.

CRAGG, Wesley (-)

__________.  The Practice of Punishment: Towards a Theory of Restorative Justice.  London and New York: Routledge, 1992.  {x, 255?}

ELLUL, Jacques (1912-94)

**__________.  The Theological Foundation of Law.  Translated from the French by Marguerite Wieser.  New York: Doubleday & Co., 1960.  {140p.}  (Le Fondement Theologique du Droit.  Neuchatel and Paris: Editions Delachaux & Niestle S.A., 1946.)  [Overlooks the premial side of “retributive” justice, and therefore takes recourse to a “substitutive” as over against either “distributive” or “retributive” justice.]

FOUCAULT, Michel (1926-84)

__________.  Discipline and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison.  Translated by Alan Sheridan.  London: Penguin, 1977; New York: Vintage Books, 1979.

GORRINGE, Timothy J[ervis]. (1946-)

***__________.  God’s Just Vengeance: Crime, Violence and the Rhetoric of Salvation.  Cambridge Studies in Ideology and Religion 9.  Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.  {xiv, 280p.}

GRIFFITH, Lee (1948-)

__________.  The War on Terrorism and the Terror of God.  Eerdmans, 2002.

HADLEY, Michael L. (1956-)

__________, ed.  The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice.  Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2001.  {}

KOHN, Alfie (1957-)

__________.  Punished by Rewards: The Trouble with Gold Stars, Incentive Plans, A’s, Praise, and Other Bribes.  With a New Afterword by the Author.  Boston, New York: Houghton Mifflin, 1999 (1993).  {xiv, 431p.}

MARSHALL, Christopher D. (-)

**__________.  Beyond Retribution: A New Testament Vision for Justice, Crime, and Punishment.  Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans; Aukland, N.Z.; Sydney, Australia: Lime Grove House Publishers, 2001.  [Yet ironically, it lacks a consistently restorative paradigm of the Atonement itself, so its cogency suffers; see esp. pp. 53-69, 172-3, 301.]

**__________.  “Grounding Justice in Reality: Theological Reflections on Overcoming Violence in the Criminal Justice System.”  In Overcoming Violence in New Zealand, pp. 81-95.  Edited by J. Roberts.  Wellington, N.Z.: Philip Garside Publishers, 2002.  {15p.}

MOBERLY, Sir W[alter]. H[amilton]. (1881-1974)

**__________.  The Ethics of Punishment.  London: Faber, 1968.  {}

NAGASAWA, Mako A. (1972-)

***__________.  “Donald Trump’s Scapegoating and the Myth of Retributive Justice, Part 1.  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted February 12, 2016.  {[c. 7+]p.}  Online:

***__________.  “Is Retributive or Restorative Justice the Highest Form of God’s Justice?  Does Atonement Theology Impact Criminal Justice?”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted

__________.  “A Neuroscientific Reason for Why Retributive Justice is from the Fall, and Penal Substitution is Immature.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted April 28, 2016.  {[c. 15+]p.}  Online:

NICHOLS, Joel A.  See WITTE Jr., John J.

QUICK, O[liver]. C[hase]. (1885-1944)

**__________.  Christianity and Justice.  News-Letter Series.  1940.  {}  (?)

ROSENBAUM, Thane (1960-)

**__________.  The Myth of Moral Choice: Why Our Legal System Fails to Do What’s Right.  New York: HarperCollins, 2004.  {xiii, 364p.}

**__________.  Payback: The Case for Revenge.  Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2013.  {[ix], 314p.}

SNYDER, T. Richard (1936-)

__________.  The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Punishment.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2001.  {xii, 159p.}  [Strangely, he never explores the connection between Restorative Justice in the criminal justice system or in the Atonement!]

SPOONER, Lysander (1808-87)

__________.  An Essay on the Trial by Jury.  Boston: John P. Jewett and Co. / Cleveland, OH: Jewett, Proctor & Worthington, 1852.  {224p.}  [An eloquent and exceedingly well-crafted elucidation of the history and value of the jury system.]

STAHL, Friedrich Julius (1802-61)

__________.  Rechtsphilosophie (II, 1, No. 56-59).

TORRANCE, Alan J.  (1956-)

VAN NESS, Daniel W. (1949-)

*__________.  Crime and Its Victims.  Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1986.  {}

*__________, et al.  Restorative Justice: Theory.  Washington, DC: Prison Fellowship, 1989.  {}

*__________, et al.  Restorative Justice: Principles.  Washington, DC: Prison Fellowship, 1990.  {}

*__________, et al.  Restorative Justice: Practice.  Washington, DC: Prison Fellowship, 1990.  {}

*__________, and Karen Heetderks Strong.  Restoring Justice.  Second edition.  Ellen S. Boyne, Editor; Elizabeth A. Shipp, Assistant Editor.  Cincinnati: Anderson Publishing Co., 2001 (1997).  {}

VOLF, Miroslav (1956-)

***__________.  “Forgiveness, Reconciliation, and Justice.”  Chapter twelve in Stricken by God?: Nonviolent Identification and the Victory of Christ,” pp. 268-86.  Edited by Brad Jersak and Michael Hardin.  Grand Rapids, MI / Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2007.  {19p.}

WINK, Walter (1935-2012)

__________.  “Breaking the Spiral of Violence: The Power of the Cross,” in Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination, pp. 139-155.  Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1992.  {17p.}

WITTE Jr., John J. (1959-)

***__________.  God’s Joust, God’s Justice: Law and Religion in the Western Tradition.  Emory University Studies in Law and Religion, John Witte Jr., general editor.  Grand Rapids, MI / Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2006.  {xiv, 498p.}

WITTE Jr., John J. (1959-) and Joel A. NICHOLS (1972-)

__________.  Religion and the American Constitutional Experiment.  Fourth Edition.  New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.  {xiv, 403p.}

WOLTERSTORFF, Nicholas (1932-)

***__________.  Justice in Love.  Now with a new preface.  Emory University Studies in Law and Religion, John Witte Jr., general editor.  Grand Rapids, MI / Cambridge, UK: Eerdmans, 2015 (2011).  {xvii, 285p.}

**__________.  Justice: Rights and Wrongs.  Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008.  {}

YODER, John Howard (1927-97)

__________.  “Theological Critique of Violence,” New Conversations 16 (1994): 3-6.  {4p.}

ZEHR, Howard (1944-)

__________.  Changing Lenses—A New Focus for Crime and Justice.  Third edition.  Herald Press, 2005 [1990, 1995].  {}

__________.  The Little Book of Restorative Justice.  Intercourse, PA: Good Books, 2002.  {[iv], 72p.}  [Not a word is mentioned about Jesus Christ, his cross, resurrection, atonement, or God’s justice in this little guide by “the grandfather of restorative justice.”  Sadly, this is quite in line with the absence of a “restorative justice” approach to any of these topics—i.e., to the Gospel message itself!—in the otherwise worthy writings of most Anabaptist and other Peace Tradition theologians I have so far encountered.  I find this puzzling in the extreme.]

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Moral Theology / Personal & Social Ethics / Social & Economic Justice / Social Reform / Discipleship / Sanctification / Praxis

ANDREW (van der BIJL), “Brother”  (1928-)

****__________.  The Ethics of Smuggling.  With a Foreword by Corrie Ten Boom.  Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers / London: Coverdale House Publishers, 1974.  {139p.}  [One of the most compelling popular treatments of the global ethical implications of God’s Kingdom that I have ever read.]

BALGUY, John (1686-1748)

***__________.  Divine Rectitude: or, a Brief Inquiry Concerning the Moral Perfections of the Deity; Particularly in respect of Creation and Providence.  London: John Pemberton, 1730.  {62p.}  [This brief and worthy treatise clears the way for Balguy’s later and truly extraordinary An Essay on Redemption (q.v.).]

***__________.  The Law of Truth: or, the Obligations of Reason Essential to all Religion, To which are Prefixed, Some Remarks supplemental to a late Tract; entitled, Divine Rectitude.  London: John Pemberton, 1733.  {xxiv, 48p.}

***BARTHOLOMEW, Craig (1961-), Jonathan CHAPLIN (-), Robert SONG (-), Al WOLTERS (1942-), editors.  A Royal Priesthood?  The Use of the Bible Ethically and Politically: A Dialogue with Oliver O’Donovan.  The Scripture and Hermeneutics Series, Volume 3.  Carlisle, UK: Paternoster Press / Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002.  {xxiv, 446p.}

BELL, Jr., Daniel M. (1966-)

**__________.  “The Economy of Salvation,” Chap. 6 in The Economy of Desire: Christianity and Capitalism in a Postmodern World, pp. 145-160.  The Church and Postmodern Culture, series editor, James K. A. Smith.  Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2016.  {16p.}

**__________.  “Forgiveness and the End of Economy,” Studies in Christian Ethics 20, no. 3 (2007): 325-44.  {20p.}  [A more extensive treatment of Anselm.]

BOER, Jan H[arm]. (1938-)

****__________, compiler.  Living in God’s World: Biblical Quotations [on Justice, Stewardship and Economics].  Jos, Nigeria: Institute of Church and Society, Northern Area Office (Christian Council of Nigeria).  1995.  {[vii], 81p.}

CASTELLIO, Sebastian (1515-63)

***__________.  Advice to a Desolate France, in the Course of Which the Reason for the Present War Is Outlined, as well as the Possible Remedy and, in the Main, Advice Is Given as to Whether Consciences Should Be Forced.  Translation by Wouter Valkhoff.  New Edition with an Introduction and Expanatory Notes by Marius F. Valkhoff.  Preface to the English Translation by Albert Geyser.  Shepherdstown, WV: Patmos Press, 1975 (1562).  {xiii, 50p.}

CLIFFORD, Ross (1951-) and Philip JOHNSON (1960-)

***__________.  The Cross Is Not Enough: Living as Witnesses to the Resurrection.  Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 2012.  {313p.}

COLLENBUSCH, Samuel (1724-1803)  [His influence on others was possibly more oral than written.]

DINESEN, Isak [pseud.] (1885-1962)

__________.  Babette’s Feast (the movie)

__________.  Anecdotes of Destiny and Ehrengard.  NY: Vintage, 1993.  [p. 52.]

DURRWELL, F[rançois]. X[avier]. (1912-2005)

***__________.  “Principles of Christian Life: 1. Redemption and Personal Sanctification; 2. The Justice of God is Man’s Holiness,” Part I of In the Redeeming Christ: Toward a Theology of Spirituality, pp. 3-33.  Translated by Rosemary Sheed.  New York: Sheed and Ward, 1963.  {31p.}  (Originally published as Dans le Christ redempteur.  Le Puy/Lyons/Paris: Editions Xavier Mappus, 1960.)

ELLUL, Jacques (1912-94)

***__________.  “The Freedom of Christ and the Emancipation of Man,” chapter 2 in The Ethics of Freedom, pp. 51-75.  Translated and edited by Geoffrey W. Bromiley.  Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1976.  {25p.}  (Originally, Éthique de la Liberté.  Geneva: Labor et Fides, n.d.)

***__________.  The Subversion of Christianity.  Translated by Geoffrey W. Bromiley.  Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 1986.  {v, 212p.}

ELY, Richard T[heodore] (1854-1943)

***__________.  Ground Under Our Feet: An Autobiography.  New York: The Macmillan Co., 1938.  {xv, 330p.}

***__________.  Social Aspects of Christianity, and Other Essays.  New and Enlarged edition.  New York, Boston: Thomas Y. Crowell & Co., 1889.  {xiii, 161p.}  (Reprint from the collection of the University of Michigan Library.  Digitized by Google Books.  Prepared for Publishing by Hewlitt Packard.)

EVANS, Christopher H[odge]. (1959-)

***__________.  The Kingdom Is Always but Coming: A Life of Walter Rauschenbusch.  Library of Religious Biography, edited by Mark A. Noll, Nathan O. Hatch, and Allen C. Guelzo.  Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004.  {xxx, 348p.}  (Esp. pp. 38-39, 72, 79, 299-303.)

***__________.  Liberalism Without Illusions: Renewing an American Christian Tradition.  Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2010.  {ix, 207p.}

***__________.  The Social Gospel in America Religion: A History.  New York: New York University Press, 2017.  {vii, 271p.}

FLETCHER, Verne H. (1922-2009)

***__________.  “Foreword”; “Part Two: Application,” in Markus Barth and Verne H. Fletcher, Acquittal by Resurrection, pp. v-viii, 99-150.  New York/Chicago/San Francisco: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1964.  {4p., 52p.}

FORDE, Gerhard O[laf]. (1927-2005)

__________.  “Christian Life.”  Eleventh Locus in Christian Dogmatics, Volume 2, pp. 391-469.  Edited by Carl E. Braaten and Robert W. Jenson.  Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.  {79p.}

FOSTER, Robert L[ouis]. (1970-)

__________.  “Naming Sin: Reframing Racism and Atonement,” in Leaven, Vol. 18, Issue 1, Article 6, pp. 1-5 (2010).  {5p.}

HALLIE, Philip P[aul]. (1922-94)

***__________.  Lest Innocent Blood Be Shed: The Story of the Village of Le Chambon and How Goodness Happened There.  New York, Cambridge, Hagerstown, Philadelphia, San Francisco, London, Mexico City, São Paulo, Sydney: Harper Colophon Books / Harper & Row, 1979.  {viii, 303p.}  [Esp. p. 140.]

HAROUTUNIAN, Joseph (1904-68)

__________.  Piety Versus Moralism: The Passing of New England Theology from Edwards to Taylor.  Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2006.  {}  (Previously published by Henry Holt and Company, 1932.)

HAYS, Richard B. (1948-)

**__________.  The Moral Vision of the New Testament: A Contemporary Introduction to New Testament Ethics.  San Francisco: HarperCollins, 1996.

HILTON, Boyd (1944-)

***__________.  The Age of Atonement: The Influence of Evangelicalism on Social and Economic Thought, 1785-1865.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1988.  {xiii, 414p.}

HOWARD, Thomas (1935-)

***__________.  Chance or the Dance?  (?)

***__________.  Once Upon a Time, God…  Philadelphia and New York: A. J. Holman Co./Division of J. B. Lippincott Co., 1974.  {114p.}

JOHNSON, Philip.  See CLIFFORD, Ross.

KINGSLEY, Charles (1819-75)

***__________.  Alton Locke, Tailor and Poet.  1849.  (Reprinted, Okitoks Press, 2018.)

***__________.  Cheap Clothes and Nasty.

***__________.  Yeast.  1849.

KOT, Stanislaw (1885-1975)

**__________.  Socinianism in Poland; The Social and Political Ideas of the Polish Antitrinitarians in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries.  Translated from the Polish by Earl Morse Wilbur.  Boston: Starr King Press, 1957.  {226p.}

KRETZMANN, John P. (-) and John L. McKNIGHT (-)

****__________, editors.  Building Communities from the Inside Out: A Path Toward Finding and Mobilizing a Community’s Assets.  The Asset-Based Community Development Institute, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University.  Chicago: ACTA [Assisting Christians To Act], 1993.  {[xi], 380p.}

LEE, Philip J. (-)

***__________.  Against the Protestant Gnostics.  Oxford University Press, 1987.  {368p.}

LOFTHOUSE, W[illiam]. F[rederick]. (1871-1965)

****__________.  Ethics and Atonement.  London: Methuen & Co., 1906.  {xii, 302}

LORENZEN, Thorwald (1936-)

***__________.  Resurrection and Discipleship: Interpretive Models, Biblical Reflections, Theological Consequences.  Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1995.  {352+p.}

***__________.  Resurrection and Responsibility.  Festschrift.

***__________.  Resurrection – Discipleship – Justice: Affirming the Resurrection of Jesus Christ Today.  Macon, GA: Smyth & Helwys, 2003.  {186p.}

MacDONALD, George (1824-1905)

***__________.  The Curate’s Awakening.  Edited by Michael R. Phillips.  Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers/A Division of Bethany Fellowship, Inc., 1985 (1876).  {224p.}

MacINTYRE, Alasdair C.  (1929-)

__________.  “Justice as a Virtue: Changing Conceptions,” in After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, pp. 227-37.  First edition.  Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 1981.  {11p.}

__________.  “Justice as a Virtue: Changing Conceptions,” in After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory, pp. 244-55.  Third edition.  Notre Dame, IN: Notre Dame University Press, 2007 (1984).  {11p.}

__________.  Whose Justice? Which Rationality?  Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 1988.  {}

MAGGAY, Melba Padilla (1950-)

***__________.  Transforming Society.  Published by the Institute for Studies in Asian Chcurch and Culture, Quezon City, Philippines.  Oxford, UK: Regnum Books, 1996.  {v, 108p.}

MANGALWADI, Vishal (1949-)

***__________.  Truth and Social Reform.  Third Edition.  New Delhi: Good Books, 1996 [1985, 1989].  {164p.}

MAURICE, [John] F[rederick]. D[enison]. (1805-72)

***__________. “Relation of Love to Righteousness,” in Reconstructing Christian Ethics: Selected Writings, pp. 80-88.  Edited by Ellen K. Wondra.  Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox Press, 1995.  {9p.}

MAURIN, Peter (1875?-1949)

**__________.  Easy Essays.  Chicago: Franciscan Herald Press, 1977 (1961).  {[xviii], 216p.}

MAURO, Philip (1859-1952)

__________.  “Wherefore Then the Law? (Gal. 3:19),” chapter VIII in Our Liberty in Christ: A Study in Galatians, pp. 86-96.  Boston, Mass.: Hamilton Bros./Scripture Truth Depot, [1920].  {11p.}  (?)


NAGASAWA, Mako A. (1972-)

***__________.  “Does Atonement Theology Impact How We Define Economic Justice?  Part 1: A Critique of Wayne Grudem.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted

**__________.  “Donald Trump’s Scapegoating and the Scapegoating of the Black Community.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted February 15, 2016.  {[c. 13+]p.}  Online:

**__________.  “Out of Eden: A Christian Study and Action Guide to Food and the Environment.”  Power Point presentation on Social Justice & Evangelism.  New Humanity Institute Resources Curriculum: Medical Substitutionary Atonement, Personal Healing, and Social Justice.  {}  Online:

**__________.  “Restoring the Captives: A Christian Study and Action Guide to Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow.”  Power Point presentation on Social Justice & Evangelism.  New Humanity Institute Resources Curriculum: Medical Substitutionary Atonement, Personal Healing, and Social Justice.  {}  Online:

***__________.  “The Role of Jesus in Revolution & the Pursuit of Justice.” [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted Feb. 2009.  {[c. 12]p.}  Online:

**__________.  “Shame & Glory: How Jesus Heals Your Self, Desires, and Emotions.”  Power Point workshop presentation at Honor-Shame Conference.  New Humanity Institute Resources Curriculum: Medical Substitutionary Atonement, Personal Healing, and Social Justice.  {[c. 24]p.}  Online:

**__________.  “The Third Abolition: A Christian Study and Action Guide to Human Trafficking & Modern Day Slavery—The Problems Hidden in Plain Sight.  Power Point presentation on Social Justice & Evangelism.  New Humanity Institute Resources Curriculum: Medical Substitutionary Atonement, Personal Healing, and Social Justice.  {}  Online:

***__________.  “What Lynching, Torture & Scapegoating Have in Common: Penal Substitution.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted February 18, 2016.  {[c. 13+]p.}  Online:

*__________.  “Why Evangelicals Scapegoat Gays, Muslims, Etc.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted February 29, 2016.  {[c. 12+]p.}  Online:

***__________.  “Why Penal Substitution Is a Gateway Drug to Right-Wing Extremism.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted February 22, 2016.  {[c. 23+]p.}  Online:

***__________.  “Why Trump and Cruz Are the Direct, Logical Result of American Evangelical Theology.”  [Boston]: New Humanity Institute, posted March 5, 2016.  {36p.}  Online:

NIETZSCHE, Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900)

__________.  Beyond Good and Evil (Jenseits von Gut und Böse).  Trans. Walter Kaufmann.  New York: Vintage, 1966 (1886).

__________.  The Genealogy of Morals (Zur Genealogie der Moral).  1887

O’DONOVAN, Oliver (1954-)

**__________.  Resurrection and Moral Order: An Outline for Evangelical Ethics.  Second edition.  Leicester, UK: APOLLOS/An imprint of Inter-Varsity Press; Grand Rapids, MI:  Eerdmans, 1994 [1986].  {xxi, [276p.]}

PAUL, Robert S[ydney]. (1918-92)

__________.  The Assembly of the Lord: Politics and Religion in the Westminster Assembly and the “Grand Debate”.  Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1985.  {x, 609p.}

PENN, [Jr.,] William (1644-1718)

***__________.  No Cross, No Crown: A Discourse showing the Nature and Discipline of the Holy Cross of Christ; and that the Denial of Self, and Daily Bearing of Christ’s Cross, Is the Alone Way to the Rest and Kingdom of God.  Philadelphia: Kimber, Conrad, and Co., 1807.  (First part reprinted with some modernization, Shippensburg, PA: Mercy Place / A licensed imprint of Destiny Image, Inc., 2001.  {x, 190p.})  [One of the most in-depth and sustained treatments of “modern” sins ever written.]

PHULE, Jotirao Govindrao (1827-90)

PINSON, Koppel S[hub]. (1904-61)

__________.  Pietism As a Factor in the Rise of German Nationalism.  New York: Columbia University Press / London: P. S. King & Son, Ltd., 1934.  {227p.}

RADER, Benjamin G. (1935-)

***__________.  The Academic Mind and Reform: The Influece of Richard T. Ely in American Life.  University of Kentucky Press, 1966. {vii, 279p.}

RAUSCHENBUSCH, Walter (1861-1918)

***__________.  Christianity and the Social Crisis.  New York and London: The Macmillan Co., 1907.  {xv, 429p.}

***__________.  Christianity and the Social Crisis in the 21st Century: The Classic That Woke Up the Church.  With Essays by Tony Campolo, Joan Chittister, James A. Forbes, Jr., Stanley Hauerwas, Richard Rorty, Phyllis Trible, Jim Wallis, Cornel West.  Edited by Paul Rauschenbush.  New York: HarperOne / An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers, 2007.  {xxii, 376p.}

***__________.  Christianizing the Social Order.  New York: The Macmillan Co., 1912.  {}

***__________.  The Righteousness Of The Kingdom.  Edited and Introduced by Max L Stackhouse.  Nashville/New York: Abingdon Press, 1968.  {320p.}

***__________.  The Social Principles of Jesus.  College Voluntary Study Courses: Fourth Year—Part I.  New York and London: Association Press, 1917.  {[ix], 198p.}

ROPER, Ronald L[ee]. (1948-)

****__________.  “Youth Revival Preparation Kit and What to Do After the Revival.”  A Progressive Categorized Bibliography.  2005.  {26p.}

RYAN, John A[ugustine]. (1869-1945)

**__________.  A Living Wage.  Revised and Abridged Edition.  With an Introduction by Richard T. Ely.  New York: The Macmillan Co., 1920.  {ix, 182p.}  (Unabridged edition, Macmillan, 1906.)  (Nabu Public Domain Reprints.)

SAFSTROM, Mark (-)

***__________.  The Religious Origins of Democratic Pluralism: Paul Peter Waldenström and the Politics of the Swedish Awakening 1868-1917.  Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications/An Imprint of Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2016.  {xii, 289p.}

SCHOTTROFF, Luise (1934-2015)

*__________.  “‘Give to Caesar What Belongs to Caesar and to God What Belongs to God’: A Theological Response of the Early Christian Church to Its Social and Political Environment,” in The Love of Enemy and Nonretaliation in the New Testament, pp. 223-57.  Edited by Willard M. Swartley.  Louisville, KY: Westminster John Knox, 1992.  {35p.}

SHELDON, Charles M[onroe]. (1857-1946)

**__________.  His Brother’s Keeper.  Updated by Jim Reimann.  Nashville: Thomas Neslon Publishers, 1999 (1895).  {ix, 245p.}

**__________.  In His Steps.  1897.

*__________.  What Did Jesus Really Teach?  Topeka, KS: The Capper Publications, 1930.  {78p.}

SWARTLEY, Willard M. (1936-)

__________.  “Discipleship and Imitation of Jesus / Suffering Servant: The Mimesis of New Creation,” in Violence Renounced: René Girard, Biblical Studies and Peacemaking, pp. 218-45.  Telford: Pandora (now Cascadia), 2000.  {28p.}

TANNER, Kathryn (1957-)

**__________.  Economy of Grace.  Minneapolis: Fortress, 2005.  {}

THOMPSON, E[dward]. P[almer]. (1924-93)

__________.  Witness Against the Beast: William Blake and the Moral Law.  New York: The New Press, 1993.  {xxi, 234p.}

TOLSTOY, Leo (1829-1910)

__________.  The Kingdom of God Is Within You.

TROCMÉ, André [Pascal] (1901-71)

***__________.  Jesus and the Nonviolent Revolution.  Revised, Expanded edition.  Edited by Charles E. Moore.  Walden, NY / Robertsbridge, UK / Elsmore, Australia: Plough Publishing House, 2014 [2003].  {233p.}

TROOST, Andre (1916-2008)

***__________.  The Christian Ethos: A Philosophical Survey.  Translated by Kobus and Yvonne Smit.  Edited by Don Sedgwick.  Bloemfontein, South Africa: Patmos, 1983.  {[vii], 154p.}

WEBB, Stephen H. (1961-2016)

***__________.  The Gifting God: A Trinitarian Ethics of Excess.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.  {}

WRIGHT, G. Ernest (1909-74)

*__________ and an Ecumenical Committee in Chicago.  The Biblical Doctrine of Man in Society.  Ecumenical Biblical Studies No. 2.  Published for the Study Department World Council of Churches.  London: SCM Press, 1954.  {176p.}

WRIGHT, N[icholas]. T[homas]. (1948-)

***__________.  “Paul and Caesar: A New Reading of Romans.”  Chapter 11 in A Royal Priesthood?  The Use of the Bible Ethically and Politically: A Dialogue with Oliver O’Donovan, pp. 173-93.  Edited by Craig Bartholomew, et al.  Carlisle, UK: Paternoster / Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2002.  {21p.}

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Human Potential / Natural Giftedness / Leadership / Motivational Assessment

JANSE, A[ntheunis]. (1890-1960)

****__________.  De Mensch als “Levende ziel” [Man As “Living Soul”].  Second Edition.  Amsterdam, MCMXXVII [1937].  {47p.}

MATTSON, Ralph T. (1933-2018)

****__________.  Redeemed Ambition: Balancing the Drive to Succeed in Your Work.  Chicago: Moody Press, 1995.  {168p.}

****__________.  Visions of Grandeur: Leadership That Creates Positive Change.  Chicago: PRAXIS Books / A division of Moody Press, 1994.  {173p.}

MILLER, Jr., Arthur F[ranklin]. (1922?/23?-2017)

****__________.  Designed for Life, Hardwired—Empowered—Purposed:  The Birthright of Every Human Being.  Charlotte, NC: Life(n) Media, LLC, a subsidiary of The Helixx Group, LLC, 2006.  {xl, 285p.}  (Abridged version: Look No Further: Your Identity Is in Your Soul.  CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2014.  {154p.})

MILLER, Jr., Arthur F[ranklin]. (1922?/23?-2017) with William HENDRICKS (-)

****__________.  Why You Can’t Be Anything You Want to Be.  Foreword by Richard Bolles.  Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1999.  {248p.}  (Paperback reprint title:  The Power of Uniqueness, 2002.)

MILLER, Jr., Arthur F[ranklin]. (1922?/23?-2017) and Ralph T. MATTSON (1933-2018)

****__________.  Finding a Job You Can Love, [Reprint edition].  Phillipsburg, NJ: P[resbyterian] & R[eformed] Publishing, [1999].  (Originally, Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982.  {192p.})

****__________.  The Truth about You: Discover What You Should Be Doing with Your Life.  Old Tappan, NJ: Fleming H. Revell Co., 1977.  {159p.}

****__________.  The Truth about You.  Foreword by Richard Boles, author of What Color Is Your Parachute?  [Rewritten for new target audience.]  Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press, 1989.  {xii, 139p.}

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Inner Healing, Psychotherapy, Counseling

ALTER, Margaret G. (1937-)

__________.  Resurrection Psychology:  An Understanding of Human Personality Based on the Life and Teachings of Jesus.  A Campion Book, an imprint of Loyola Press, 1994.  Reprinted, Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2004.  {224p.}

BROWNING, Don S. (1934-2010)

__________.  Atonement and Psychotherapy.  Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1966.  {288p.}

PAYNE, Leanne (1932-2015)

****__________.  “Incarnational Reality: The Christian Union with God,” in The Healing Presence: Curing the Soul through Union with Christ, pp. 89-125.  A Hamewith Book.  Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1989.  {37p.}

****__________.  “Incarnational Reality: The Key to Carrying the Cross,” in ibid., pp. 197-229.  {33p.}

SMITH, Edward M. (1953-)

****__________.  Healing Life’s Hurts through Theophostic Prayer: Let the Light of Christ Set You Free from Lifelong Fears, Shame, False Guilt, Anxiety and Emotional Pain.  [Second edition.]  Campbellsville, KY: New Creation Publishing, 2005.  {online version, 271p.}  (Originally co-published by Servant Publications, Ann Arbor, MI and New Creation Publishing, 2002.) (last accessed 5/01/19)

SMITH, Edward M. (1953-) and Joshua A. SMITH (-)

****__________.  Effortless Forgiveness.  Campbellsville, KY: New Creation Publishing / CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2018.  {204p.}  Online: (last accessed 5/01/19)

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